A persons importance rating of a variable is referred to as how much of something is wanted. This model lists five features of a job that can affect a person, three of which skill variety, task identity, task significance can affect an employees perception of how meaningful the work is. Self discrepancy theory proposes that people represent a negative life event as saying something about their current state, their actual self now. Job satisfaction is a very important attribute which is frequently measured by organizations. It was suggested by locke 1969 that job satisfaction was a positive or pleasurable reaction. The relationship between work environment and job satisfaction in hotel industry iii declaration we hereby declare that. A study of the relationships between job satisfaction and. The steadystate theory each worker has a typical orcharacteristic level of job satisfaction,called the steady state or equilibriumlevel. Lyman porter and edward lawler came up with a comprehensive theory of motivation, combining the various aspects that we have so far been discussing and using two additional variables in their model.
One of the most important theories which explain the job satisfaction is lawlers theory. Motivating factors like pay and benefits, recognition and achievement need to be met in order for an employee to be satisfied with. Different theories have been improved about job satisfaction. Another theory is the job characteristics model, probably one of the most jobfocused theories of job satisfaction used. Moreover, findings about satisfaction level of employees and recommendations for the institution are presented in the report. The last theory used to explain job satisfaction was proposed by landy. Discrepancy between role expectations and job descriptions. Job satisfaction, analytic hierarchy process, job satisfaction survey. Models of job satisfaction affect theory organizational.
Abraham maslows hierarchy of needs on the needs fulfillment theory has already been discussed in the section of motivation. This theory suggests that a persons job satisfaction comes from what they feel is important rather than. Pdf discrepancy theory models of satisfaction in is research. The most widely accepted theory of job satisfaction was proposed by locke 1976, who defined job satisfaction as a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of ones job or job experiences locke, 1975, p. Further, the theory states that how much one values a given facet of work e.
A study on comparing the relationship among organizational. Results of discrepancy analyses were somewhat supportive of overrating being associated with greater well. Lockes 1969 opinion stated as discrepancy theory, suggests that job satisfaction grows out of the feeling that what things the individual think as important for himself, not meeting the need of the individual. A comparison requires that each individual establish an anchor, have a contextdependent state of nature to compare to the anchor, realize individual expectations or perceptions of both the anchor. Jun 12, 20 the steadystate theory each worker has a typical orcharacteristic level of job satisfaction,called the steady state or equilibriumlevel. Different situational factors or eventsat work may move a workertemporarily from this steady state, butthe worker will eventually return tohis or her equilibrium level. Theories of job satisfaction explained with example. While the theory of assimilation asserts that the consumers will try to minimize the expectationperformance discrepancy, the theory of contrast insists on a surprise effect that can lead to exaggerating the discrepancy. Discrepancy theory provides broad coverage in explaining satisfaction. First, we describe the use of discrepancy theory in other disciplines relevant to is research.
Job satisfaction is a workers sense of achievement and sucess on the job. Though built in large part on vrooms expectancy model. Determinants of job satisfaction among teachers in vietnam. In the end, the research results showed that, the job satisfaction, job involvement, and organizational climate of teachers in rural areas are higher than those of those in urban areas. The main premise of this theory is that satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in.
The discrepancy theory, difference, contradiction and conflict theory. Job satisfaction ppt free download as powerpoint presentation. Otherwise, lack of satisfaction as well as dissatisfaction should be expected. Discrepancy theory models of satisfaction in is research. Thomas wright 2009 has found that when employees have high levels of psychological wellbeing and job satisfaction, they perform better and. Self discrepancy theory over the years many different facets of the self or selfimages have been identified. Theories of job satisfaction theoretical framework job. Job satisfaction ppt job satisfaction industrial and. I, hamed alsemeri, declare that the dba thesis entitled the factors affecting job satisfaction. Many theorists have tried to come up with an explanation for why people feel the way they do in regards to their job.
The first research work in the field of consumers satisfaction and the later studies in the field of service perceived quality jiang, klein and crampton, 2000. According to the contrast theory, any discrepancy of experience from expectations will be exaggerated in the. Key findings linking employee satisfaction with productivity, performance, and customer satisfaction pdf. Western michigan university, 2002 given the magnitude of importance in the role of the school principal, it is important to understand some of. Furthermore, this theory predicts that discrepancies between what is desired and received are dissatisfying only if the job facet is important to the individual. A discrepancy theory of the relationship between communication and job satisfaction. Job satisfaction in law enforcement is important because it promotes continuity of a professional and cohesive police force that works well together, follows proper policy and procedures, and provides the services needed to the public. Fulfilment theory was the first approach to develop. Discrepancy theor y described the study of inevitable irregularities of distributions, in measuretheoretic and combinatorial settings. This study found moderate differences in correlations between communication and job satisfaction using a discrepancy framework when high. The theory suggests that satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what an employee is getting from the job.
The most popular is the one by locke 2007 which describes job satisfaction as a pleasurable or. Some of the most important theories of job satisfaction and their impacts on workers are as follows. Concept that when people become aware of a deficiency in their competence they are motivated to learn, and the anxiety caused by the discrepancy between what they know and what they need to know drives them to make the required effort change of behavior. Influence of work life balance on job satisfaction of. His theory is known as the opponent process theory. He 15 explains job satisfaction in four basic conditions. Thomas wright 2009 has found that when employees have high levels of psychological wellbeing and job satisfaction, they perform better and are less likely to leave their jobs.
Research shows literature, a variety of similar definitions describing job satisfaction. Locke developed the idea known as discrepancy theory. Discussion of the results ties this study to relevant research from a self. Selfdiscrepancy theory over the years many different facets of the self or selfimages have been identified. Theories of job satisfaction and their impacts on workers. It is generally perceived to be directly linked to productitivty as well as to personal wellbeing. The discrepancy theory is concerned on what the workers are expecting and. Determinants of job dissatisfaction among employees in formal. Job satisfaction in law enforcement officers according to. The results studied the effect of demographic variables such as pharmaceutical experience, educational level, and age on the job satisfaction.
After that, we discuss satisfaction used in is research starting with user satisfaction followed by employee job satisfaction. Locke s range of affect theory 1976 is arguably the most famous job satisfaction model. The basis of discrepancy theoryderived satisfaction is the cognitive comparison on the part of an individual. This led to the development of the discrepancy theory of job satisfaction. The fulfillment theory which explains the reaching of the thing needed. He suggested that the primary reaction the immediate emotional response combined with the secondary reaction the later emotional response creates a stabilized equilibrium which results in job satisfaction. Locke in 1976 and is considered the most famous job satisfaction model. Four approaches can be identified in the theoretical work on satisfaction. Another important factorvariable that should be included to predict job satisfaction accurately is the strength of the individuals desire of his level of aspiration in a particular area. Discrepancy theory research, is the study of this difference between an a prior state and subsequent perception.
The concept of job satisfaction is multifaceted hence a number of theories are advanced to explain what it means and how the theories could be applied to. What are the different theories of job satisfaction. Personality traits and job satisfaction 4 proceedings of 2nd international conference on business management isbn. Lockes range of affect theory 1976 is arguably the most famous job satisfaction model. This study will explain the existence of this discrepancy, measure its impacts, and test personal characteristics that may moderate any negative outcomes. The concept of job satisfaction is multifaceted hence a number of theories are advanced to explain what it means and how the theories could be applied to enhance employee performance. The satisfaction turnover relationship also is affected by alternative job prospects. The implication of herzberg is theory is that in a formal organization such as unicem, employees i satisfaction or dissatisfaction will depend on the availability of the conditions and incentives outlined above.
Within the literature, one of the first definitions of job satisfaction were described by hoppock, 1935, when he defined the construct as being any number of psychological, physiological, and environmental circumstances which leads a person to express satisfaction with their job. The concept of discrepancy theory is to explain the ultimate source of anxiety and dejection. In this chapter, we present the versatility of discrepancy theory in the explanation and prediction of satisfaction in is research models and show how to avoid many of the analytical pitfalls. Several other main theories on job satisfaction attracting the attention of researchers include discrepancy theory of locke 1969, equity theory of adams 1965, and expectancy theory of vroom 1964. This actual self is compared with their selfguides, the kind of person they want or desire to be e. A miniature difference sets out job satisfaction as being high and a huge difference would mean the employee is less satisfied with the job. Selfdiscrepancy theory in social psychology iresearchnet. A study of michigan high school principals david a. Herzbergs motivatorhygiene theory suggests that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not two opposite ends of the same continuum, but instead are two separate and, at times, even unrelated concepts. Job satisfaction or employee satisfaction is a measure of workers contentedness with their job. Western michigan university, 2002 given the magnitude of importance in the role of the school principal, it is important to understand some of the job satisfaction factors related to the retention of. Discrepancy theory describes job satisfaction in three aspects. Job satisfaction therefore is a measurement of job and work expectations and not just an overall holistic attitudinal manifestation. Determinants of job dissatisfaction among employees in.
Lawlers discrepancy theory suggests that a persons job satisfaction or. Job satisfaction is closely linked to that individuals behaviour in the work place davis et al. It has been accepted for inclusion in scripps senior theses by an authorized administrator of scholarship. A discrepancy theory of the relationship between communication. Oct 05, 2015 the satisfaction turnover relationship also is affected by alternative job prospects. Essentially, satisfaction is said to be derived from a comparative process that considers a prior formed impression about an. Discrepancy theory suggests that dissatisfaction will occur when a. The main premise of this theory is that satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job.515 880 1164 426 1355 1200 475 186 1121 1062 550 360 1153 942 361 1368 102 813 291 1526 394 1007 927 1497 995 758 1502 912 1158 1005 230 457 380 1533 92 374 1300 966 94 4 1318 1146 871 1364